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  1. 8 points
    Chris Hobson

    Lithium batteries

    I have been asked to start a lithium batteries thread. Unlike lead acid my lithium experience is limited to the last month which hardly qualifies me as someone to start something like this. I however do like information catalogued so that I can refer back to it easily so on that basis I plough ahead and hope this thread develops into a resource with many contributors. I will use lead acid batteries (LA) as a reference point and assume that folk are familiar with them. What is Lithium? It is the 3rd lightest element and those of you who were the chemistry teacher nemesis at school will know it is highly reactive in both water and air and is usually stored in a hydrocarbon solvent. It readily sheds its 3rd electron and therefore its highly reactive nature. Lithium ion batteries are all similar in that their cathodes have a matrix of some lithium containing compounds and the lithium ion since it is so small moves in and out of this matrix allowing charge and discharge of the cell. There are numerous flavours of lithium ion but I think in the solar industry lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) has the biggest potential. Lithium iron phosphate (often called lithium ferrous phosphate to prevent the lithium ion/lithium iron confusion) is more stable and therefore safer than the other lithium ion batteries, has a greater cycle life and greater heat tolerance. Since it is charged to 3.65V rather than the more common 4.2V it has a lower specific energy not a huge problem with our stationary modules. Thermal runaway with LiFePO4 only happens >250°C whereas other lithium ion variants this temperature is a lot lower. There is a LA versus Lithium debate and this post is not about continuing the debate but to understand the beast one must make comparison to what is familiar. LiFePO4 batteries are like an AGM or Gel battery in that they are not vented – there is no giving off of gas. LiFePo4 batteries have a high charge and discharge rate and do not require a long tapered absorb and float phase. The sudden drop in charging from 30A to <2A is a clear indicator that the batteries are fully charged. My batteries in fact discharge slightly to balance the cells. Like LA batteries in theory LiFePO4 batteries should last forever but in our imperfect world LiFePO4 suffer from a process akin to sulphation. The electrolyte of LiFePO4 batteries contains LiFePO4 dissolved in an organic solvent. This precipitates out as a Li2CO3 layer on the cathode, reducing the availability of the active LiFePO4. This process is irreversible and speed up at elevated temperatures (>50°C). There is a fair amount of R&D to slow down this process. Unlike sulphation this is a process triggered by charging and LiFePO4 do not suffer from storage partially discharged like LAs do from sulphation. LiFePO4 batteries achieve nearly all their charging at about 3.3V/cell and the jump in SOC is from roughly 30% at 3.2V/cell to 90% and over at 3.3V. Since LiFePO4 batteries do not suffer from sulphation and overcharging has a negative influence on battery life some manufacturers cheat and do not fully charge the batteries thereby extending battery life for a small loss of capacity, a sensible trade off in my opinion. The biggest advantage to me besides the longevity of LiFePO4 batteries is the ability to “grow” your battery bank as the need arises. With LAs there is a problem with combining batteries of differing ages into a single bank. With LiFePO4 due to the Battery Management System (BMS) modules of differing vintages can successfully accommodated within a single battery bank. Thus one can grow one’s bank as the need arises or finances allow. I hope @plonkster, @Coulomb, @weber, @PurePower and others will add to this and correct any errors in my post making it a useful resource.
  2. 5 points
    Okay... instead of exposing you guys to my horrible English accent, I simply made this video in Afrikaans. The backyard is in a mess, but here's the system as it stands now:
  3. 5 points
    fran_pascualin

    New Infini Super

    Hello photovoltaic friends excuse my English from Google. My name is Francisco and I'm from Madrid (Spain), I also suffer with my two 4k, one of them exploded. Alone they worked well, and in parallel it threw an error "12, leakage current exceed of limit ", and they were turned off. I've been using only one until I was planning to increase the number of plates. In the last test exploded one of them damaging several DC MOSFET. I am in contact with the technical service to fix this. I sent photos of the damage and components of the installation, and I have answered that they want schematics of my installation. I found it odd that they withdrew the 4k 4-5 months ago, from the page where I bought it is the distributor in Europe, while the version 3k, 5, 5k and 10k continue to sell, but I see that we are more affected. Good luck to all, you'll see me more around here I am excited about the technical and human level that you see here.
  4. 4 points
    Werner Piek

    Axpert / Mecer 5KVA model

    Today I completed the power hookup. I tested the two inverters (one on the left is old one 5kva /4kw with firmware 72.7c and the one on the right new 5kva/5kw with firmware 74.1) They have now been running or about 2 hours . Tested under load at about 7.8kw and the two inverters shared the load about equaly at around 3.9 each 97% and 78% . Two different models 4kv and 5kv successfully paired.
  5. 4 points
    I have a small temperature experiment starting today... I managed to source some iButtons (temperature only) to measure the temperature at 2 different points on my PV array. Buttons are now installed and I'll give them a few weeks to collect data. Some initial specs: Zinc corrugated roof/Aluminium adjustable frame (tilt = 45deg) 15 min reading intervals Button 1: Bottom - Located inside of the panel frame but NOT on the glass backing (about 150mm from roof) Button 2: Centre - Located inside of the panel frame but NOT on the glass backing (about 400mm from roof) Button 3: Top - Located inside of the panel frame but NOT on the glass backing (about 700mm from roof) The array is 6 x 310w panels long so the buttons are placed in middle of the array. (Panel size = 1800mmx900mm) I should be able to plot the 3x sets of PV readings on a spreadsheet with hopefully weather data as well (maybe only temperature )
  6. 4 points
    GVC

    Emon Dashboards "Show Case"

    My emoncms dashboard almost where i want it. Thanks for all the help @PaulF007
  7. 4 points
    Johandup

    New Infini Super

    So Full Circle Solar repaired the Infinisolar in ONE day. I take my hat off to Heintz who is the technical guy there. He also set it up so I can just install it. Feedback from him is that there is 100% support from the factory :-) He replaced three boards (Heintz said it was the first time he had seen a failure like this). At least the inverter has the latest updated boards and the latest 2 week old firmware in it now. The inverter was up and running when I got there. He also showed me the pc board where the neutral and earth connects. So today is installation time for me - ironically we won't have power today as the main substation will have repairs done on it for the WHOLE day. So testing will be done with the generator running. There is still a few technical items to sort out but with the assistance of a retired Eskom electrician it should be easy. Apparently Eskom is busy training their techs on solar in a big way. Go figure. The idea is to have the split db (with its own neutral) up and running today - this turned out to be 4x more expensive than I thought it would be! Lots of interesting lessons learnt there with very little information from the internet and the local sparkies.
  8. 4 points
    pilotfish

    Eskom collapse?

    The problem is that in places where high levels of PV is in use you have massive and rapid demand shifts between PV day and PV night. Coal/Nuclear power stations cannot easily respond to these rapid shifts, whereas diesel/gas etc can - but at a significant cost. So the answer seems dead simple to me... Embrace decentralized renewables so that most houses (and daytime only offices) have a PV system on their roof, Implement Time of Use metering as a standard throughout the country, Have a cost structure something like the following; Feed back rate R0.50c/kWh 10am - 4pm = R1.00/kWh 6am -10am and 4pm-8pm = R4/kWh 8pm-6am = R2/kWh Install Gas/Diesel/(other fast response system) generation to cope with the peak hours, but now you are charging R4/kWh so you can afford it. This system would encourage users to install a PV system AND STORAGE to at least take them through the peak period - no more generation problems.
  9. 3 points
    DeepBass9

    One year's off grid solar production

    I am posting this to help with system sizing for people considering going off grid. This is one years monthly production figures. The system size is as follows: Generation 3000W solar array, two separate arrays of 6x300W and 4x300W panels, through separate MPPTs. Fixed angle installation, 1800W at 30deg north, and 1200W essentially flat (roofs dictate the angles) Diesel generator for backup. Wind generator (I can't measure this but I guess it makes 1or 2 kwH per month depending on wind) Solar geysers (no electrical backup) Load Household of 4, normal fridge, freezer, washing machine, computers etc etc. Water pumping from borehole, pool pump (2hrs in winter, 6hrs in summer). Gas stove for cooking, wood fires for heating. Storage 8x150Ah Trojans, currently 2.5 years old. I have been measuring the montly production for a year now since I upgraded the system to 3000W. Note that the graph is more of consumption rather that production as the batteries float on most sunny days, so there is excess production mostly. If the weather is overcast I run the generator, rather than stress the batteries, especially in winter I run the generator for an hour or so in the morning to power toaster, microwave etc before the sun is up. The seasonal effect is obvious on the graph, the pool pump is used more in summer which accounts for some of the extra power consumption, I'm not sure what all of the other extra consumption might be, I think we are getting less frugal with power use as time goes by and we are used to the system, so we vary from about 300kWh per month in winter, to almost 450kWh in summer. Solar efficiency varies from around 3 in winter to 4.5 in summer (kW produced/kW installed per day). Diesel use peaks in May & June as would be expected, you often get overcast days in May. So here's the figures, I hope someone will find this useful.
  10. 3 points
    plonkster

    Newbie mistakes on first solar install

    Depends. I believe these HA jobbies everyone likes so much can pass as much as 2 amps, so it should compensate for a fan on one battery. But if you're going to kludge it, then put a fan on each battery :-) If two fans are good, 4 must be better! :-P
  11. 3 points
    plonkster

    DIY Powerwall with 18650 batteries

    The Bee had a really really good satirical article on it. Can't remember the last time I laughed so hard. I figure I can post that here seeing as we do occasionally venture over to that side... and I love humour of all kinds. If you can't joke about yourself... why bother?
  12. 3 points
    This is not quite true. Each chemistry has its own thermal runaway The earliest Lithium chemistry was Lithium cobalt and has a thermal runaway temp of 150°C . This low thermal runaway temperature, poor cycle life and the high cost of cobalt has resulted in this chemistry being replace by blending manganese with other active materials for the cathode Lithium manganese oxide was one of the first replacements of lithium cobalt with a thermal runaway of 250°C. Like lithium cobalt rapid charging can lower this figure. It also suffers from a shorter cycle life. Lithium Ferrous Phosphate with a thermal runaway of 270°C can safely be stored fully charged. It has excellent cycle life and is one of the safest chemistries. With a max charging voltage of 3.65V it does not have the same energy density of other lithium chemistries but that is not a major factor in the solar industry. Lithium Nickel cobalt aluminium oxide shares many characteristics of lithium cobalt but is cheaper and has a longer cycle life Thermal runaway is also about 150°C Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) is one of the newer cobalt blends results in lowering of costs and better safety (thermal runaway of 210°C ) making it a favoured chemistry of the electric car industry. Lithium Titanate no thermal runaway problems and has a high cycle life but cost are high and is largely limited to the electric car industry.
  13. 3 points
    Lekker man!!! I am so happy for you Plonkster. Myself, I think I have my storage issue sorted. After the fiasco with the 220l drums, I got hold of a 1890l tank for about R2750 ... grinded me, as it was R1.46 per liter. But lets do ... NO! Lets not do this! So I sat, this water thing is going to blow over, water will be more expensive, we have to save more, my focus being on washing machine water that then goes to the toilets. Have the drums for the washing water, stench be-gone with HTH. So that is working perfectly. Not one drop of drinking water down the drain these past weeks, and the clothes are washed. Then I thought. Tanks, if empty, just stands there, no further use. If full, still allegedly just stands there. How do I get 2300l of water = +-23 washes = +-10-11 months of washing . Then it hit me!!! A pool, a above ground pool! Store water 2300l of water. Can pack it away when empty. Can swim in it if I want! And the price - R0.65c per liter - because of the extra for the cover, otherwise with no cover R0.46 per liter at Makro. Now that makes a lot more sense, not? Can lasts between 3-7 years. 1 year warranty. And if I want more storage, just buy another one, and another one, each one under a gutter. This is what I got, arriving Friday, before the weekends rain.
  14. 3 points
    pilotfish

    Panel (Array) ventilation

    Seperate into 2 arrays as follows, depending on shading (assuming 2x MPPT as mentioned by @Chris Hobson) - the system will work great. Most PV systems work hard in the morning to charge batteries etc, and then start to idle one batteries reach float, so that being the common case it makes sense to favour NE array if you had to pick one because you are likely to have excess capacity in the afternoon anyway.
  15. 3 points
    Mark

    Panel (Array) ventilation

    String 1: NE facing roof top of "n" String 2: NW facing roof "n's" right leg You will then have the best of both worlds - morning, midday and evening power generation! My 2c Mark
  16. 3 points
    Coulomb

    Axpert / Mecer 5KVA model

    So it's official then. The supplier's really don't know what will work and what won't, and people like @Werner Piek and others have to figure it out for ourselves. Thanks, Power Forum, for hosting this valuable information! [ Edit: and thanks Werner, for providing it, of course. ]
  17. 3 points
    I was looking at the proposed punitive rates earlier tonight. It seems that even if I were to consume a comfortable 20kl a month, the bill would still be around 1.5k. I'm not one to sommer net criticise... but what is this nonsense? You're talking here of people living in houses with bond payments on the other side of 10k a month, and you think a 1.5k water bill is going to scare anyone? The price should be way higher. I remember when Windhoek did this in 1996. Suddenly the guys who insisted on watering their gardens had 2k/month water bills. Remember that this was two decades ago, when a year at varsity was around 20k. On the same scale, water wasters should be hit with bills in the range of 8k-10k. And it should have been done in 2016. I know it is easy to talk. Hindsight and 20/20 and all that.
  18. 3 points
    I believe that the Microcare unit is telling you that your panels are under-powered; ".....the PV panels are limiting the amount of energy delivered to the MPPT to charge the batteries...." Your system is bitching because you haven't provided enough PV power for it to do it's job, like asking the Italian slaves to build you a railroad and then feeding them rice instead of pasta... you need more PASTA!
  19. 3 points
    In all fairness to the DA in CoCT, they do not have authority to supply bulk water. That is the responsibility of national government which is totally incompetant and crooked. If a cabinet minister thinks CapeTown is a foreign country, as has been reported in the media , any understanding of the serious consequences if they do not fullfil their statutory obligations will be a major miracle. So let us place the blame where it belongs. Some years ago I saw photos of the dismal condition of a feeder canal from other rivers to the Voelvlei dam. It was only recently repaired by Water Affairs Dept. Likewise did they actively resist the building of the Bergriver dam which CoCT in desperation built and citizens have to pay the loans back. All this is according to what Helen Zille revealed at a public presentation recently. It is glaringly clear that DWA acted unconstitutionally in not taking steps to supply water in the Western Cape given that the excessive influx of people from the failed rest of the country is common knowledge. So it is not just Zuma that should be prosecuted. Which brings us to the much revered legacy of Nelson Mandela and that is the mess the nation suffers today which he and his political party bestowed on us. What we now have to figure out is where to get water if the dams run dry. Massive desalination ala Dubai, with its 2.15 billion liters per day with vacuum flash evaporation using waste heat from the gas turbines of the electricity generators, is the only proven solution in the longer term. Meanwhile desalination by RO to augment whatever water remains in the dams, seems the only short term solution. And again we have to ask, where is DWA whose resposibility it is. Perhaps we should stop paying taxes and do our own thing to the point of seperating our province from the rest of RSA. The country is the product of Whitehall and the much despised colonialism after all. Enough said, have a good weekend while there is still water around.
  20. 3 points
    SilverNodashi

    Panel (Array) ventilation

    Not saying it would be too expensive, but would you risk burning some panels which got too hot? It has happened before. Those diodes, the soldering and even the silicone wafers can only handle a certain temperature. Normal electronic components normally have an upper operating limit of 80 degrees celsius.
  21. 3 points
    ... there is an explosion. At least a potential of one, for that batt would, I bet, gets pretty hot. So then the warranty started in Arpil 2017 in my mind, when you got it. The fact the he bought the batteries during may 2016, is not really your concern. Talk very firm and nicely. Then consider the Consumer Protection Act.
  22. 2 points
    A video of what we saw of the recent rains. Must say, the cloud formations in Cpt is getting quite awesome. Nowhere close to Jhb yet.
  23. 2 points
    If I build a submarine I am DEF going with Victron
  24. 2 points
    Coulomb

    Patched firmware based on version 73.00

    The beta versions of patched firmware 73.00a are here: LFP, and other chemistries. It's split into two posts only because of a problem with multiple attachments and the recently updated forum software. Ironically, the forum software needs to be patched to host the patched firmware
  25. 2 points
    Yes the HA02 can pass up to 10A. One needs to remember that often the voltage imbalance between batteries is in tens of millivolts so really not a lot of power is being transferred. A 40W fan may make the HA02 work quiet hard
  26. 2 points
    GVC

    Newbie mistakes on first solar install

    Now for my next wake up call......DO not run 12V gadgets off an individual battery on the bank if you do not have a battery balancer or similar. My inverter was running at about 70° about a month ago and i read that the guys were putting 12v computer fans on the inverters vents to cool it down. I did the same and they worked wonderfully, but being a smartass DIY guy, I reckoned I did not need a AC to 12V transformer as I had a whole bank of 12v batteries... This week we had a few power failures due to thunder storms and my wife was saying that the batteries were not lasting as long as normal so I checked the software and sure enough the SOC and PV were very erratic. The PV production actually dropped by 50% yesterday. I measured the individual batteries and sure enough the battery that i was running the cooling fans off was only reporting 10.8v and the others were running 13.0v. I have now recharged that individual battery back to the same as the others and am just hoping that it is not damaged. (And yes i installed a AC to 12v transformer) I will be installing battery balancers ASAP.
  27. 2 points
    Dis 'n volledige development kit met alles wat ons in die Victron stal ondersteun. Daar is drie power supplies om sonpanele mee te simuleer, twee MPPTs, 'n Multiplus, 'n Fronius Primo op die agterkant, current meters, 'n BMS, en 'n CCGX. Dit maak dit moontlik om amper enige scenario met regte hardeware te toets.
  28. 2 points
    Korrek, maar ek het "dog kennel" gesê in die video, na ek nogal daarop gelet het om mooi Afrikaans te praat deurgaans :-)
  29. 2 points
    Alas, no, I'm not aware of any complete schematics, and with the clone makers being so bold, I suspect they don't want to publish more than they already have. That's why I have done my own tracing whenever I've needed to work on a particular area. However, I'd love to be proven wrong on this, and have someone post better schematics.
  30. 2 points
    Chris Hobson

    Panel (Array) ventilation

    If I remember correctly you have 2 Axperts therefore 2 MPPTs and should have panels facing in 2 directions rather than 3. All the panels on one MPPT should face the same direction and have the same tilt. I do know some of the solar pump installers face panels in two different directions on a single MPPT. Pump MPPTs are much more forgiving.
  31. 2 points
    SilverNodashi

    Panel (Array) ventilation

    If you cannot mount it at 24 degrees, it would / might produce a little less solar energy. Ideally, your panels need to be perpendicular to the sun, i.e. "face" the sun at a 90 degree angle. But that isn't always possible, or (financially / physically) viable. On small systems, it doesn't always make financial sense to build / buy a solar tracker, for your panels to track throughout the day. And thus it is often cheaper to add upto 20% more PV, you can. For example, instead of using 12x 250W panel for 3000W, use 12x 300W panels instead to get 3600W. This will then help for the shortfall incase your panels are not aligned 90 degrees to the sun. If you look at larger commercial installations, most shopping centers have their panels mounted flat on the roof, and not at an angle facing the sun. The main reason for this is to cater for strong wind resistance on those open roofs. So instead of mounting at an angle, more panels are used.
  32. 2 points
    Sonstrall wakes up when the sun hits the panels and switches his PC or starts his PVO feed... he then misses a good few hours power usage and therefore the efficiency is excellent. Easy to do
  33. 2 points
    pilotfish

    Mecer 3kva Plus

    You definitely DO NOT equalize (boost charge) an Omnipower battery as this will causing gassing and loss of electrolyte, AGM batteries are sealed and the electrolyte is not replaceable. The problem that you may have is that the OPS 260-12 requires an initial charge current of 30amps (recommended 40amps, max 50amps), if the initial charge current is lower than 30amps it results in sulphation according to the Omnipower battery supplier (Sinetech). Your off-grid Axpert system will start start off each morning by using PV to supply the load with any excess required being supplied by the battery, as PV input increases through the morning then the system will gradually take over the battery input and start to charge the battery with any energy available over the load requirement. This could start at 1 amp and increase with PV power input - but definitely not an initial current of 30amps. It is for this reason that I don't believe that OPS (now OPR) batteries are a good solution for PV systems (others may differ).
  34. 2 points
    I really feel for you guys. About 2 years ago it was drought here and our borehole was almost dry. We only managed to get a few hundred litres a day out of it. Had to drive to neighbours with stronger borehole and fill up the firefighter tank 650l at a time to fill our water tanks. Difficult. Hopefully winter brings good rains.
  35. 2 points
    Hmm, can also explain why people think that Capies are always a bit slower in the morning!
  36. 2 points
    What TTT says here is important. To my mind there is very little sense in upgrading from 180ah to 200ah. A lot of money for just 10% more. The only reason to do it would be if you had particularly crappy batteries and you were moving to something better, and even then I'd rather run the crappy ones into the ground first and get at least some value from them. We've had this discussion before. A decent set of 400Ah batteries (or thereabouts), which is where you want to go if 200Ah isn't enough, will set you back 50k. You can get Pylontech lithiums for that price now, so for just about anyone who needs more than 200Ah nowadays the answer is to go Lithium.
  37. 2 points
    plonkster

    One year's off grid solar production

    The pvoutput.org team page also gets you an idea of what kind of power people are making on a day, so far could not figure out how you look at historical data though. I added myself in December, after finally writing some code to patch Venus into pvoutput. What's kind of interesting is how people on the east is initially ahead in the morning, and then the westerners catch up towards late afternoon. @The Terrible Triplett starts at the bottom every morning for example, with a very small and also off-grid system. Usually by late afternoon, in terms of efficiency, I end up in third or fourth place (hybrid inverters are awesome). @ebrsa pretty much beats everyone on a daily basis :-)
  38. 2 points
    I run my fridge and freezer on a timer so they are off overnight when they are not opened. I try to keep them full (even if it is just waterbottles) to give a bit more thermal mass to prevent the temperature from rising too much
  39. 2 points
    weber

    Axpert / Mecer 5KVA model

    According to the labels, the old machine is pf0.8 (4 kW/5 kVA), while the new one is pf1.0 (5 kW/5 kVA). It is confusing that both have the same model number "SOL-I-AX-5M". So I think you cannot load firmware 74.10 into your old machine, and if so, you cannot parallel the two machines. I'm thinking 74.10 is old firmware for pf1.0 machines, not new firmware for pf0.8 machines. I suggest you ask the supplier if you can please exchange the new inverter for one that has "5000VA/4000W" on the sticker, so you have some chance of paralleling it with your old inverter.
  40. 2 points
    plonkster

    Lithium batteries

    It's a bit more than that. He was apparently bullied a lot at school. He later moved to another school, but it was only marginally better (or something like that). He left the country as soon as he could, when he was only 17. His old high school (the better one) later needed money for some project at school and they contacted him hoping to get a donation. They got their donation, along with a note that he doesn't want to hear from them ever again. I think it is fair to say that he left for good. Which brings up an interesting sideline topic, especially for those of us who may have been bullied ourselves, or now have kids in school with the same ever-present danger. Boys will be boys as they, say, but sometimes you lose someone great that way.
  41. 2 points
    Chris Hobson

    Axpert / Mecer 5KVA model

    I received my Axpert/Mecer, with an external heatsink, in June 2015 and it was manufactured June 2015 (there was probably a run on inverters at the time). From what I can understand so long as the firmware is the same you can parallel the internal heat sink inverters with the external heat sink inverters. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7OaZ3tzMxk
  42. 2 points
    plonkster

    Getting my head around Solar

    Yes. Though the fact that I have to explain this in so much detail makes me a little worried, no insult intended. You sorta have to know what you're doing. Multimeter has to be capable of the current (I'd say at least a 10A range to be safe), you have to have the leads in the right sockets on the multimeter (on many of them there is a separate socket for the 10A range)... we already have one smoke releaser on this forum :-)
  43. 2 points
    It's been a while since I worked with a Microcare controller, but as I recall it basically tells you whether it is running flat-out or limited. If the batteries are below the required voltage, then the controller will dump as much current as it can find into it... and in this situation the only thing limiting what can be produced is... the panels. In other words, that asterisk just means it's running flat-out. When you reach absorption level, then the charger switches from constant-current to constant-voltage, and at that point, the charger will be limiting the power instead of the panels.
  44. 2 points
    SilverNodashi

    Panel (Array) ventilation

    That alone is a no-brainer to me. Proper mounting structure is expensive (as have been discussed many times on this forum in the past, by many people) but it has a very valuable purpose in your expensive investment.
  45. 2 points
    Things you thought you’d never hear yourself say to your kids … and then you found yourself living in Cape Town in the Summer of 2018: 1. WHO flushed the toilet??? 2. WHY did you flush the toilet?? 3. Have I NOT told you to NEVER flush the toilet until it’s ABSOLUTELY necessary?? 4. Please lick your plate clean! 5. We washed your hair a week ago, let’s give it a few more days … 6. No, you may definitely not shower/bath, you swam this afternoon! 7. PLEASE pee outside! 8. What are you doing washing your hands like that? Haven’t I told you to rather use the wet wipes? 9. Your face is fine, no need to wash it, nobody will notice the smear of Bovril on your chin. 10. You’d better finish all the water in your water bottle today, otherwise you’ll be drinking it again tomorrow! 11. Those shorts are just fine, one more mud or grass stain will not make a difference. 12. Let’s just leave these smelly socks that you’ve been wearing all day out in the sun for a while, shall we? They’ll be good to go again tomorrow! 13. You’d better not scratch your mozzie bites and leave blood spots on your sheets, your bedding isn’t due to be washed for at least another 3 weeks! 14. No, you cannot go to your friend’s house tomorrow afternoon, there’s 1mm rain predicted and we need everyone to be at home to catch it! Have I left anything out? #CapeWaterCrisis #FindingHumour
  46. 2 points
    I am hearing of more and more people taking their water bottles to go and fill it at the "Water shop" around the corner or installing water filtration systems to ensure clean water. Just some information on that. Most of the water from the Water shop comes from Reverse Osmosis. Similar to your under counter filter. For every 1 litres of Clean water, 4 litres of clean water is used to flush the RO membrane. Or 80% wastage, down the drain!!!! So a 5lt water bottle uses 25lt of perfectly drinkable water. People needs to be educated!!!!
  47. 2 points
    Mike

    Desalination Plant

    Off I go to Emirates airlines cargo tomorrow to pick up the unit at 145kg's of it. I am not on here often so to answer a few questions / remarks i have seen......@ebrsa - I have a tank that brine waste goes to and that then returns to the sea when full, but besides that i also have a borehole and the waste from that can go free of charge to the builders for cement mixing. I will post some pics when all in place. It will have from the borehole two x primary FRP pressure vessels with auto backwash, then to 4500lt holding tanks, from there it enters the desalinator thru that and its 7 stage RO system & UV, where the pure water goes to a 2200lt holding pressure pump tank to my home and a tap on the pavement for surplus for neighbors. the salt water holding tank and fresh water holding tanks supplying the desal unit will be controlled by electronic soloid valves, so i can switch at any point. I might be able to add the big blue 5 stage filter on the borehole line if the test results are ok from the lab and thereby bypass the desal on that line..... more to come. Got my first order of 44 of these units on the weekend.....
  48. 2 points
    Nou so groot geskrik! Metro police het my vasgedruk in 'n roadblock. Sê die blerrie konstabeltjie vir my: "Meneer, blaas gou in die pypie, ons wil kyk hoeveel glase water jy gedrink het." Dankie tog ek het daai Black Label dumpie gedrink in plaas van daai 3de glas water na my morning run. Anders was ek nou oor die limit vir Level 6B water restrictions. Sjoe, dit was amper
  49. 2 points
    @TTT Alot of local farmers have got rid of pressure/header tanks and went for pumps... I've kept mine and at least now have 2-3 days water without running dry... township solar (low pressure) geyser, dishwasher and washing machine run perfect with the 1 bar pressure.
  50. 2 points
    vandyh

    Axpert service manuals

    Version 1.0.0

    335 downloads

    Service/repair documentation for the 1-5kVA KS & MKS Axpert inverter/charge controllers. They also do have detailed schematic diagrams with numbered components.
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